TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION TIMBER AND THEIR USE
There is a wide variety of lumber, differing in characteristics, as well as in which species of wood they are produced from, what equipment is used, how clearly all the nuances of drying and manufacturing are observed, and in what way the logs are sawn.
There is a clear correlation between the last factor and the texture of lumber. Wood can be sawn in several different ways, depending on the direction of movement of the cutting blade:
• transverse (perpendicular to the fibers);
• radial (along the radius of the log to its center);
• rustic (at an acute angle to the location of the fibers);
• tangential (tangent to fibers).
Classification Sawn timber is divided into many varieties, depending on their shape, dimensions, characteristics.
A beam is a log cut from all sides, which is most actively used in the construction of buildings. In addition, they act as the basis for stairs, door and window frames, and other large elements. The beam has 100-150 mm in width and thickness.
A bar is a reduced version of a beam, not exceeding a thickness of 100 mm. It is planed when at least one of the sides has undergone processing, calibrated, that is, adjusted to a strictly required size, and completely unprocessed. Finds application in the arrangement of lathing, frames, furniture, flooring.
Board - lumber obtained from logs or beams. A distinctive feature is the ratio between the width and the thickness of at least 2 to 1. It can be trimmed, that is, with smooth edges, trimmed on one side or not trimmed. The board, the size of which is adapted to certain needs, is called calibrated.
A croaker is a board with a smooth surface on one side and a semicircular on the other. It is a by-product from sawing logs. Sleeper is a high-strength lumber that perfectly tolerates temperature fluctuations.
Obapol - sawn timber obtained from the sides of a log, in which only one of the sides is flat. Pros and cons Since ancient times, wood and products from it have been actively used by man in various fields. In particular, it was the tree that for many centuries acted as the main building material for the construction of housing and all kinds of buildings. Despite the emergence of a huge number of artificial materials with unique characteristics, the tree is still highly valued and remains invariably in demand.
Positive qualities of lumber:
• light weight combined with high load-bearing capacity; • simplicity and ease of processing with various tools; • aesthetic appeal; • convenience, simplicity and speed of construction and installation works; • a variety of shapes and sizes; • complete environmental safety; • ensuring a favorable microclimate in the house; • low cost.
Cons of lumber:
• high flammability;
• susceptibility to fungal diseases, mold damage, spoilage by insects;
• deterioration due to contact with the environment and the influence of various atmospheric phenomena.
To increase the fire safety of lumber, improve their resistance to negative external influences, they are resorted to processing with special means.